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Land

Singapore is located between latitudes 1°09’N and 1°29’ N and longitudes 103°36’ E and 104°25’ E.

The main island of Singapore is about 49km from east to west and 28km from north to south with a coastline of 217km. The total land area of Singapore is approximately 728.3km² as at end December 2020. The figures are based on 2.515m High Water Mark cadastral survey boundaries.

Singapore is generally flat, with much of the island lying within 15m of sea level. The highest point of the island’s surface reaches 164 m.

Singapore can be geographically divided into three major areas – the central hilly area with heavy deposits of granite in Bukit Timah, Bukit Panjang, Bukit Mandai and Bukit Batok; the western undulating area comprising Mount Faber Ridge and Pasir Panjang Ridge; and the eastern coastal area consisting of alluvium and sediment stretches from Katong to Bedok and Changi.

Data

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View Latest Data:

Key Indicators
Items Unit Latest Period Latest Data % Change
(Y-o-Y)  1/
Previous
Period Data
% Change
(Y-o-Y)  2/
Environment            
Land Area 
(As At June)
Sq Km 2021 728.6 0.1 728.0 0.4
Land Area 
(As At December)
Sq Km 2020 728.3 0.4 725.7 0.2

Climate

Singapore is situated near the equator and has a tropical climate, with relatively high and uniform temperature, abundant rainfall, and high humidity. Singapore's climate is characterised by two monsoon seasons separated by inter-monsoon periods. The Northeast Monsoon occurs from December to early March, and the Southwest Monsoon from June to September.

The early part of the Northeast Monsoon, in December and January, is the wetter period of the year when monsoon surges occur, which can bring prolonged heavy rain to Singapore. The later part of the Northeast Monsoon from February to early March is usually much drier, with February being the driest month of the year. The Southwest Monsoon is drier compared to the Northeast Monsoon.

Afternoon thunderstorms with frequent lighting are common throughout the year, especially during the inter-monsoonal periods from late March to May and October to November. During the Southwest Monsoon and inter-monsoon periods, widespread heavy rain and gusty winds associated with Sumatra squalls occur occasionally.

Singapore’s long-term average (1991-20201) daily temperature is 27.8°C, with an average daily maximum and minimum temperatures of 31.6°C and 25.0°C respectively. The long-term average annual rainfall is 2,113.3mm. With climate change, Singapore’s annual mean surface temperature has risen at an average rate of 0.2-0.3°C per decade since the 1980s. Rainfall has also become more intense in recent years. The annual total rainfall for Singapore has increased at an average rate of 67mm per decade from 1980 to 2019.

The Meteorological Service Singapore publishes the Annual Climate Assessment Report2 every year. The report provides updates on Singapore’s climate trends, with descriptions of key climatic features and notable weather events that affect Singapore.

1 The World Meteorological Organisation defines climate as the average state of the weather over a period of 30 years or more. Climate statistics are based on a 30-year reference period that is updated every ten years, with 1991-2020 as the current reference period.
2 www.weather.gov.sg/climate-annual-climate-reports

Data

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Climate

Title : Air Temperature And Sunshine, Relative Humidity And Rainfall, Annual

Data Items

2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020

Air Temperature Means Daily Maximum

(Degree Celsius)

31.3
31.6
31.9
32
31.1
31.6
32.3
31.7

Air Temperature Means Daily Minimum

(Degree Celsius)

25
25.3
25.8
25.8
25.2
25.4
25.9
25.5

Air Temperature Absolute Extremes Maximum

(Degree Celsius)

35.2
34.5
34.4
35
34.6
35
34.8
34.6

Air Temperature Absolute Extremes Minimum

(Degree Celsius)

20.9
21.1
21.9
21.6
21.8
21.3
21.9
21.9

Total Rainfall

(Millimetre)

2,748.4
1,538.4
1,266.8
1,955.7
2,045.6
1,708.2
1,367.5
1,886.6

Highest Daily Rainfall Total

(Millimetre)

139.8
64.4
63.2
75.4
69.8
60.6
92.2
64.2

Number Of Rainy Days

(Number)

206
152
125
179
204
188
120
178

Bright Sunshine Daily Mean

(Hour)

5.4
6
6.2
6
5.8
5.7
6.8
5.9

Minimum Relative Humidity

(Per Cent)

36
37
35
33
44
33
35
41

24 Hours Mean Relative Humidity

(Per Cent)

81.7
78.5
76.9
76
82.6
79.6
76.7
78.1
SOURCE : NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AGENCY

Air Quality

The ambient air quality in Singapore is continuously monitored by the National Environment Agency (NEA) through a network of air monitoring sensors which forms the Telemetric Air Quality Monitoring and Management System. The sensors measure the air pollutant levels of six types of air pollutants, namely Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Particulate Matter smaller than 10 microns (PM10), Particulate Matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Ozone (O3). They then transmit the air quality data to a Data Management System.

The Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) is computed from the six air pollutants and the air quality is described as ‘Good’, ‘Moderate’, ‘Unhealthy’, ‘Very Unhealthy’ or ‘Hazardous’ depending on the concentrations of these air pollutants.

Air quality in 2019 was affected by transboundary haze for 11 days, 9 days in September and 2 days in November, when the air quality was in the “Unhealthy” range with the max PSI reaching 154. The air quality was in the ’Good’ and ‘Moderate’ range for 97% of the year.

Data

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Other References

Air Quality
Key Environmental Statistics View

External Sources

Land Area
Singapore Land Authority View
Climate and Air Quality
Ministry of Sustainability and the Environment View
National Environment Agency View