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Land

Singapore is located between latitudes 1°09’N and 1°29’ N and longitudes 103°36’ E and 104°25’ E.

The main island of Singapore is about 49km from east to west and 28km from north to south with a coastline of 226km. The total land area of Singapore is approximately 733.1km² as at end December 2021. The figures are based on 2.515m High Water Mark cadastral survey boundaries.

Singapore is generally flat, with much of the island lying within 15m of sea level. The highest point of the island’s surface reaches 164 m.

Singapore can be geographically divided into three major areas – the central hilly area with heavy deposits of granite in Bukit Timah, Bukit Panjang, Bukit Mandai and Bukit Batok; the western undulating area comprising Mount Faber Ridge and Pasir Panjang Ridge; and the eastern coastal area consisting of alluvium and sediment stretches from Katong to Bedok and Changi.

Data

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View Latest Data:

Key Indicators
Items Unit Latest Period Latest Data % Change
(Y-o-Y)  1/
Previous
Period Data
% Change
(Y-o-Y)  2/
Environment            
Land Area 
(As At June)
Sq Km 2022 733.2 0.6 728.6 0.1
Land Area 
(As At December)
Sq Km 2021 733.1 0.7 728.3 0.4

Climate

Singapore is situated near the equator and has a tropical climate, with relatively high and uniform temperature, abundant rainfall, and high humidity. Singapore's climate is characterised by two monsoon seasons separated by inter-monsoon periods. The Northeast Monsoon occurs from December to early March, and the comparatively drier Southwest Monsoon from June to September.

The early part of the Northeast Monsoon (December and January) is the wetter period of the year when monsoon surges occur, which can bring prolonged heavy rain to Singapore. The later part of the Northeast Monsoon (February to early March) is usually much drier, with February being the driest month of the year.

Afternoon thunderstorms with frequent lighting are common throughout the year, especially during the inter-monsoon periods from late March to May and October to November. During the Southwest Monsoon and inter-monsoon periods, widespread heavy rain and gusty winds associated with Sumatra squalls occur occasionally.

Singapore’s long-term (1991-20201) annual mean temperature is 27.8°C, with an average daily maximum and minimum temperatures of 31.6°C and 25.0°C respectively. The long-term average annual total rainfall is 2,113.3mm. With climate change, Singapore’s annual mean temperature has risen at an average rate of 0.2-0.3°C per decade since 1980. For 2021, the annual mean temperature and total rainfall was 27.9°C and 2,809.6mm respectively.

The Meteorological Service Singapore publishes the Annual Climate Assessment Report2 every year. The report provides updates on Singapore’s climate trends, with descriptions of key climatic features and notable weather events that affect Singapore.

1 The World Meteorological Organisation defines climate as the average state of the weather over a period of 30 years or more. Climate statistics are based on a 30-year reference period that is updated every ten years, with 1991-2020 as the current reference period.
2 www.weather.gov.sg/climate-annual-climate-reports

Data

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Climate

Title : Air Temperature And Sunshine, Relative Humidity And Rainfall, Annual

Data Items

2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021

Air Temperature Means Daily Maximum

(Degree Celsius)

31.6
31.9
32
31.1
31.6
32.3
31.7
31.7

Air Temperature Means Daily Minimum

(Degree Celsius)

25.3
25.8
25.8
25.2
25.4
25.9
25.5
25.3

Air Temperature Absolute Extremes Maximum

(Degree Celsius)

34.5
34.4
35
34.6
35
34.8
34.6
34.7

Air Temperature Absolute Extremes Minimum

(Degree Celsius)

21.1
21.9
21.6
21.8
21.3
21.9
21.9
21.7

Total Rainfall

(Millimetre)

1,538.4
1,266.8
1,955.7
2,045.6
1,708.2
1,367.5
1,886.6
2,809.6

Highest Daily Rainfall Total

(Millimetre)

64.4
63.2
75.4
69.8
60.6
92.2
64.2
210.6

Number Of Rainy Days

(Number)

152
125
179
204
188
120
178
182

Bright Sunshine Daily Mean

(Hour)

6
6.2
6
5.8
5.7
6.8
5.9
6.1

Minimum Relative Humidity

(Per Cent)

37
35
33
44
33
35
41
41

24 Hours Mean Relative Humidity

(Per Cent)

78.5
76.9
76
82.6
79.6
76.7
78.1
78.5
SOURCE : NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AGENCY

Air Quality

The ambient air quality in Singapore is continuously monitored by the National Environment Agency (NEA) through a network of 22 fixed air quality monitoring stations located across 5 regions of Singapore. The hourly concentrations of air pollutants, namely Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Particulate Matter smaller than 10 microns (PM10), Particulate Matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Ozone (O3), are used to compute the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI). The 24-hour PSI is published on the NEA and haze websites, as well as on the myENV app.

Singapore’s ambient air quality is described as ‘Good’, ‘Moderate’, ‘Unhealthy’, ‘Very Unhealthy’ or ‘Hazardous’ depending on the 24-hour PSI level. During the traditional dry season when Singapore’s air quality is likely to be impacted by transboundary smoke haze, NEA will publish the 24-hr PSI forecast. Members of public can refer to the 24-hr PSI forecast with the accompanying health advisories to plan for next day outdoor activities, and refer to the 1-hr PM2.5 bandings and personal guide when deciding on carrying out immediate outdoor activities.

The air quality in 2021 was in the ‘Good’ and ‘Moderate’ range for 99.5% of the year.

There were 2 days in 2021 (in February and March) when the air quality entered the ‘Unhealthy’ range due to elevated Ozone levels, caused by a combination of weather conditions, including high temperatures, elevated UV index levels and light winds.

Data

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Other References

Air Quality
Key Environmental Statistics View

External Sources

Land Area
Singapore Land Authority View
Climate and Air Quality
Ministry of Sustainability and the Environment View
National Environment Agency View