Labour, Employment, Wages and Productivity 

Age-Sex Specific Labour Force Participation Rate

Refer to the percentage of economically active persons to the population in the specific sex and age group.

Average Monthly Recruitment Rate during a quarter

Refers to the average number of persons recruited in a month during the quarter divided by the average number of employees in the establishment. The annual figures are the simple averages of the quarterly figures.

Average Monthly Resignation Rate during a quarter

Refers to the average number of persons who resigned in a month during the quarter divided by the average number of employees in the establishment. The annual figures are the simple averages of the quarterly figures.

Collective Agreement

Refers to an agreement between employers and employees on industrial matters. The duration of a collective agreement is specified and by law shall not be less than two years or more than three years.

Employment

Data on the number of persons in employment are compiled from two major sources, namely, (a) administrative records; and (b) Comprehensive Labour Force Survey (LFS). While headline employment statistics on the number of persons employed and its quarterly changes by industry are compiled from administrative records, data on the demographic, social and other economic characteristics of employed persons such as age, sex, educational attainment and occupation are compiled annually from the Comprehensive Labour Force Survey.

Employment Change

Refers to the change in the number of persons who are in employment, derived by taking the difference in the employment level (i.e. number of employed persons) at the end of the reference period compared with the end of the preceding period. A positive change refers to the additional number of persons who are in employment, while a negative change refers to the decline in number of persons in employment.

Employment Level

Refers to the number of persons in employment, comprising employees and the self-employed.

Employed Persons

Refer to persons aged fifteen years and over who, during the reference period: (i) work for one hour or more either for pay, profit or family gains; or (ii) have a job or business but are temporarily absent because of illness, injury, breakdown of machinery at workplace, labour-management dispute or other reasons. Members of the Singapore Armed Forces including full-time National Servicemen are included in the count of persons employed, unless otherwise specified.

Economically Active Persons

Refer to persons aged fifteen years and over who are either employed or unemployed during the reference period. This group is also known as the labour force.

Gross Monthly Income from Work

Refers to income earned from employment. For employees, it refers to the gross monthly wages or salaries before deduction of employee CPF contributions and personal income tax. It comprises basic wages, overtime pay, commissions, tips, other allowances and one-twelfth of annual bonuses. For self-employed persons, gross monthly income refers to the average monthly profits from their business, trade or profession (i.e. total receipts less business expenses incurred) before deduction of income tax.

Industrial Arbitration Court (IAC) Award

Refers to an award made by the IAC, and includes a collective agreement and a memorandum of the terms which have been certified by the President of the IAC in accordance with the provisions of the Industrial Relations Act.

Labour Force Participation Rate

Refers to the percentage of the labour force to the population.

Labour Productivity

See Productivity.

Paid Hours Worked

Refer to the total number of paid hours worked during a week by an employee. It is the sum of standard hours and paid overtime hours worked.

Persons in The Labour Force

Refer to persons aged fifteen years and over who are either employed or unemployed during the reference period.

Persons Outside the Labour Force

Refer to persons aged fifteen years and over who are neither employed nor unemployed during the reference period.

Trade Dispute

A dispute (including a threatened, impending or probable dispute) on industrial matters.

Trade Union

Refers to a group or association of employees or employers whose principal objective is to regulate relations between employees and employers for all or any of the following purposes:

  • Promote good industrial relations between employers and employees;
  • Improve the working conditions of employees or enhance their economic and social status; and
  • Raise productivity for the benefit of employees, employers and the economy of Singapore.

Unemployed Persons

Refer to persons aged fifteen years and over who are not working but are available for work and are actively looking for a job during the reference period. They include persons who are not working but are taking steps to start their own business or taking up a new job after the reference period.

Unemployment Rate

Refers to the percentage of unemployed persons to the labour force.

Unit Labour Cost

The average cost of labour per unit of output. It is computed as Total Labour Cost (TLC) per unit of real Gross Value Added (GVA). 

TLC consists of:

  • Compensation of Employees (CoE)
  • Labour income of self-employed
  • Other labour-related costs (e.g. Foreign Workers' Levy and net training costs) incurred by employers
  • Wage subsidies (e.g. Wage Credit Scheme and Jobs Credit Scheme) that are provided to employers. Wage subsidies reduce employers' labour cost and are netted off from TLC.