Defined as a manufacturing unit engaged in one manufacturing activity and generally operating at one location.

Gross Value of Fixed Assets

Refers to the accumulated cost of acquiring the fixed assets.

Index of Industrial Production

An index that measures changes in the volume of industrial production with respect to the base year. The index charts the growth in production of each major industry and of the manufacturing sector.

Investment Commitments

Investment projects in terms of fixed assets which companies commit to invest in Singapore. Projects are only recorded as commitments if the company has made a firm undertaking to implement the project.

Manufacturing Output

Refers to the total value of all commodities produced (including by-products) and industrial services rendered during the year.

Materials Used

Cover raw or basic materials, chemicals and packing materials consumed in the production. They refer to the actual consumption during the year.

Net Operating Surplus

Obtained by deducting remuneration, depreciation of fixed assets and indirect taxes from value-added.

Net Value of Fixed Assets

Refers to the gross value net of accumulated depreciation.

Other Operating Costs

Include work-given out, utilities, fuel, transportation charges, rental paid for premises, machinery and transport equipment, repair and servicing of building, machinery, and transport equipment, insurance premium on building, machinery and transport equipment, bank service charge, travelling expenses including own vehicles, telecommunication fees (e.g. postage, printing), share of related company's expenses, preliminary/pre-operating expenses, staff training expenses, recruitment expenses, quality control expenses, guarantee/warranty cost, sundry operating expenses, factory requisite (e.g. tools & consumables), uniforms, cargo handling, delivery and container service, harbour charges, wharfage and dockage, festivals and annual functions for staff, laundry services, professional service charges, advertising, promotional and entertainment expenses, commission and agency fees, third party logistics, royalties and other non-deductible GST paid and other operating expenditure for non-manufacturing activities.


The total remuneration of employees. Remuneration comprises three components, namely:

  • Wages and salaries
  • Employers' contribution to Central Provident Fund (CPF) or pension funds
  • Other benefits

Sales and Direct Exports

Refer to local sale or exports to other countries of goods manufactured. Resale of goods not manufactured by the establishments is excluded.

Total Output

Refers to the total value of goods and services derived from a production process and ancillary activities such as management or marketing. As such, it includes manufacturing output and other operating income.

Unit Business Cost Index (UBCI)

Measures the relative cost of producing one unit of real output with respect to the base year. The main components of business cost are labour cost, services cost and non-labour production taxes. The UBCI is compiled on the basis of benchmark data on business cost from the Census of Manufacturing Activities (CMA) and extrapolated using data from the Monthly Survey of Manufacturing Activities (MMA).

Value Added

Refers to total output less materials, utilities, fuel, transportation charges, work given out and other operating costs.


Refer to all persons engaged in the industrial activity of the establishment, that is, all employees, the self-employed and their relatives. Data generally refer to employment as at 30 June, except where establishments commence operation after June.