Research and Development

R&D Expenditure

R&D expenditure includes capital expenditure (acquisition of fixed tangible assets involved in R&D activities, excluding depreciation provisions), R&D manpower costs, and other R&D-related operating expenditures. Data for R&D expenditure in each year are expressed in nominal terms and are not adjusted for inflation.

R&D Manpower

R&D manpower comprises all persons directly employed on R&D and those providing direct services. It includes persons who are mainly or partially engaged in R&D. It comprises three occupation groups defined and described below: Researchers, Technicians and Other supporting staff.


Refer to professionals who are engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, or in the management of the projects concerned. Managers and administrators engaged in the planning and management of the scientific and technical aspects of a researcher’s work also fall into this category. Researchers are further sub-classified into:

a) Research scientists and engineers (RSEs) - who hold formal qualifications at the university degree level (i.e., PhD, master degree and bachelor degree)

b) Full-time postgraduate research students (FPGRS)

c) Non-degree researchers - who hold formal qualifications below the university degree level.


Refer to persons whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in one or more fields of science and technology. They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks that involve the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers.

Other supporting staff

Comprise other persons who participate in or are directly associated with R&D projects. Managers and administrators dealing with mainly with financial and personnel matters and general administration, skilled and unskilled craftsmen, secretarial and clerical staff are included here, insofar as their activities are a direct service to R&D.