Business Receipts Index (BRI)

Measures the changes in the amount of business or operating receipts on a quarterly basis. It covers the services industries, excluding Wholesale & Retail Trade and Accommodation & Food Services. The BRI is compiled based on survey data and administrative records of more than 11,000 enterprises in the Transport & Storage services, Information & Communications services, Financial & Insurance services, Business services, Education Services, Health & Social Services and Recreation & Personal services. The BRI is compiled at current prices, with 2014 as the base year.


This refers to the value, at current replacement cost, of reproducible fixed assets such as buildings, plants and machinery used during a period of time as a result of normal wear and tear, foreseen obsolescence and the normal rate of accidental damage.

E-commerce Revenue

Refers to the revenue earned from the sale of goods and services whereby the company receives orders or agrees on the price and terms of sale via online means, e.g. through company’s website, third-party websites (e.g. online marketplaces, food delivery platforms), mobile applications, extranet or Electronic Data Interchange (e.g. GeBIZ in Singapore’s context). It excludes agreement through telephone calls, facsimile and emails. Payment and delivery may or may not be made online.


Refers to an incorporated or registered entity (such as company, sole-proprietorship, partnership, association or society, etc).

Establishment (Services)

Defined as a business or organisation unit engaged in one activity and operating in a single location. Thus, for a multi-activity firm or organisation, units engaged in separate activities in the same location constitute distinct establishments. Similarly, each branch of a multi-branch organisation at a different location is conceptually a different establishment.

Gross Operating Surplus

The surplus accruing to owners from production before deducting any explicit or implicit interest charges, rent or other property incomes payable on the financial assets, land and other natural resources required to carry on the production. Estimates for GOS is mainly derived as the value of firms' operating receipts less their operating expenditure, plus depreciation of their fixed assets.

Net Weighted Balance

Used in the measure of Business Expectations, to indicate the likely overall direction of change of a particular activity or industry. Net weighted balance is calculated by taking the difference between the weighted percentages of 'ups' and 'downs'.

A positive net weighted balance indicates upward trend while negative net weighted balance indicates a downward trend.

Operating Expenditure

Refers to all expenditure incurred by the establishment in its business, with adjustment for changes in inventory. It includes remuneration, purchases, indirect taxes, work given out, rental and maintenance of machinery and equipment, legal, accounting and other professional services, rental and maintenance of premises, depreciation, transport and travelling, utilities, advertisement, entertainment, stationery and printing, postage and telecommunications, fuel, freight charges and other expenses that are connected with the establishment’s operation. 

Operating Revenue

Refers to income earned from business operations, i.e. income from services rendered, sale of goods, commission fees and rental of premises, machinery and equipment.


Includes three components, namely, wages and salaries, employers' contribution to Central Provident Fund (CPF)/pension funds and other benefits.

  1. Wages and Salaries
    Refers to gross emoluments paid to employees during the reference year, inclusive of commissions, bonuses, overtime pay and allowances before deduction of employees' contribution to CPF or any other deduction. For proprietors or partners, the item refers to amount paid to or withdrawn by them during the year. However, this amount is not included in the tables.
  2. Employers' Contribution to CPF/Pension Funds
    Refers to the net amount contributed by employers towards their employees' CPF/pension funds. It does not include the amount paid to retired employees under company pension scheme.
  3. Other benefits
    Comprises medical benefits, cost of food, and accommodation, and other benefits in kind provided by employers. Allowances given to unpaid family workers are also included here.
  4. Directors' Fee
    Refers only to the amount paid to directors for attending board of directors' meetings. It does not include the fees paid to directors who are actively engaged in running the establishment.

Retail Sales Index (RSI) and Food & Beverage Services Index (FSI)

The Retail Sales Index (RSI) and Food & Beverage Services Index (FSI) measure the short-term performance of the retail trade and food & beverage services industries based on the sales records of retail trade and food & beverage services establishments respectively. The base year for the indices is 2017. The RSI and FSI are available at current prices and in chained volume terms. The indices at current prices measure the changes of sales values which can result from changes in both price and quantity, while the indices in volume terms measure the changes in the volume of economic activity by removing the price effect.

Wholesale Trade Index (WTI)

The Wholesale Trade Index (WTI) measures the short-term performance of the wholesale trade industry. Data used for the compilation of the WTI are obtained from the Quarterly Survey of Services (QSS) conducted by DOS, as well as from administrative sources. The WTI series is available at current prices and in chained volume terms. The indices at current prices measure the changes in sales values, which can result from changes in price and quantity, while the indices in chained volume terms measure the changes in the volume of economic activity by removing the price effect.

Value Added

Gross value added is derived by the output or income approach.
The output approach measures value added as output less intermediate consumption. Output refers to the value of goods and services produced while intermediate consumption is value of goods and services consumed as inputs by a process of production, e.g. materials, utilities, fuel, rental paid for premises and equipment, banking and financial charges and other operating costs.

The income approach derives value added as the sum of incomes generated from the domestic production of goods and services, which comprise gross operating surplus, remuneration and taxes (less subsidies) on production.