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Households

A household refers to (i) a group of two or more persons living together in the same house and sharing common food or other essential arrangements for living; or (ii) a person living alone or a person living with others but having his own food or other essential arrangements for living. Although persons may be living in the same house, they may not be members of the same household.

Data

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Key Indicators
Items Unit Latest Period Latest Data % Change
(Y-o-Y)  1/
Previous
Period Data
% Change
(Y-o-Y)  2/
Households            
Number of Resident Households3/ '000 2020 1,372.6 0.0 1,372.4 3.6
Average Household Size of Resident Households 4/ Persons 2020 3.22 na 3.16 na
Proportion of Owner-Occupied Resident Households 5/ % 2020 87.9 na 90.4 na
Items Unit Latest Period Latest Data % Change
(Y-o-Y)  1/
Previous
Period Data
% Change
(Y-o-Y)  2/
Resident Households by Type of Dwelling
Total 6/ % 2020 100.0 na 100.0 na
Total HDB Dwellings % 2020 78.7 na 78.6 na
HDB 1- & 2-Room Flats 7/ % 2020 6.5 na 6.2 na
HDB 3-Room Flats % 2020 17.7 na 17.5 na
HDB 4-Room Flats % 2020 31.6 na 31.8 na
HDB 5-Room & Executive Flats % 2020 22.9 na 23.1 na
Condominiums & Other Apartments % 2020 16.0 na 16.2 na
Landed Properties % 2020 5.0 na 5.0 na

Households

Title : Resident Households By Household Size, Annual

Data Items

2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020

Resident Households

(Number)

1,174,500
1,200,000
1,225,300
1,263,600
1,289,900
1,325,300
1,372,400
1,372,600

1-person Households

(Number)

124,400
134,800
146,000
156,200
167,900
185,400
208,000
220,300

2-person Households

(Number)

234,100
252,200
259,200
276,100
289,200
306,300
334,400
309,800

3-person Households

(Number)

243,700
251,500
256,200
266,200
277,000
276,900
286,400
280,500

4-person Households

(Number)

290,900
280,100
282,200
286,200
278,100
284,500
283,500
275,600

5-person Households

(Number)

165,500
162,900
164,000
161,200
161,400
160,700
155,100
163,500

6-person Households Or Larger

(Number)

116,000
118,400
117,600
117,600
116,300
111,600
104,900
122,900

Average Household Size Among Resident Households

(Persons)

3.47
3.43
3.39
3.35
3.3
3.24
3.16
3.22

Total HDB Dwellings * Data for years prior 2018 includes non-privatised Housing and Urban Development Company (HUDC) flats.

(Persons)

3.42
3.37
3.34
3.3
3.25
3.18
3.07
3.13

HDB 1- And 2-room Flats * Includes HDB studio apartments.

(Persons)

2.38
2.32
2.24
2.16
2.19
2.08
2.02
2.09

HDB 3-room Flats

(Persons)

2.74
2.7
2.69
2.67
2.63
2.58
2.5
2.54

HDB 4-room Flats

(Persons)

3.58
3.53
3.49
3.46
3.42
3.34
3.22
3.29

HDB 5-room And Executive Flats

(Persons)

3.94
3.88
3.89
3.84
3.77
3.71
3.58
3.67

Condominiums And Other Apartments

(Persons)

3.42
3.4
3.34
3.3
3.24
3.26
3.26
3.29

Landed Properties

(Persons)

4.33
4.32
4.3
4.28
4.29
4.17
4.24
4.38

Other Types Of Dwelling

(Persons)

3.38
3.02
2.92
2.65
2.85
2.67
2.81
2.06
SOURCE : SINGAPORE DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

Household Income

Household income from work refers to the sum of income received by working members of the household from employment and business. However, it does not include the income of domestic workers. Monthly household income from work includes one-twelfth of the annual bonus. Data on household income from work refer to household income from work before accounting for Government transfers and taxes, unless stated otherwise.

Data on household income by income groups are derived by first ranking, in ascending order, all resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member, and then dividing them into ten equal groups or deciles.

Explore the trends in household income from work and the impact of Government transfers on household income in our 'Key Household Income Trends Dashboard' in the 'Visualising Data' section below.

Household Income Distribution

The Gini Coefficient is a summary statistic that measures the dispersion of incomes on a scale of zero to one. A Gini of zero reflects perfect equality, where every household has the same income. A Gini of one represents perfect inequality, where one household has all of the income.

Equivalence scales take into account economies of scale within the household and adjust for household size so that households with different sizes and compositions are comparable. There are different equivalence scales used by different countries and international organisations. Commonly used equivalence scales include the modified OECD scale (used by Eurostat, the UK and Australia) and the square root scale (used by OECD in its reports). Department of Statistics compiles Singapore’s Gini Coefficient based on the per household member scale, modified OECD scale and square root scale.

Find out more on the concept of the ‘Gini Coefficient’ from the video in the ‘Visualising Data’ section below.

Government Transfers and Taxes

The Government transfers and taxes are subject to scheme design and data availability. For example, data on workfare-related payment starts from 2006, when the scheme was first introduced in 2006 as workfare bonus and subsequently as the workfare income supplement scheme.

Data

Please click on the topic to view the available data tables.

Household Income and Income Inequality

Title : Key Indicators On Household Income From Work Among Resident Employed Households, Annual

Data Items

2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020

Median Monthly Household Income From Work Including Employer CPF Contributions

(Dollar)

7,872
8,292
8,666
8,846
9,023
9,293
9,425
9,189

Real Change In Median Monthly Household Income From Work Including Employer CPF Contributions * The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is used as the deflator to compute real income changes.

(Per Cent)

1.6
4.1
4.9
2.6
1.5
2.6
1
-2.4

Median Monthly Household Income From Work Per Household Member (Including Employer CPF Contributions) * Household income from work per household member refers to the household income from work divided by the total number of members in the household. For example, if there is one person in a household of four who is working, his income is divided by four to derive the income per household member.

(Dollar)

2,247
2,380
2,500
2,584
2,699
2,792
2,925
2,886

Real Change In Median Monthly Household Income From Work Per Household Member (Including Employer CPF Contributions) * The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is used as the deflator to compute real income changes.

(Per Cent)

3.2
4.7
5.4
3.8
3.9
3
4.3
-1.2

Monthly Household Income From Work Per Household Member (Including Employer CPF Contributions) At 20th Percentile * Household income from work per household member refers to the household income from work divided by the total number of members in the household. For example, if there is one person in a household of four who is working, his income is divided by four to derive the income per household member.

(Dollar)

1,083
1,167
1,242
1,280
1,311
1,359
1,415
1,396

Real Change In Monthly Household Income From Work Per Household Member (Including Employer CPF Contributions) At 20th Percentile * The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is used as the deflator to compute real income changes.

(Per Cent)

3.4
6.1
7.6
4.2
2.5
3.4
3.8
-1.3

Average Monthly Household Income From Work Per Household Member (Including Employer CPF Contributions) * Household income from work per household member refers to the household income from work divided by the total number of members in the household. For example, if there is one person in a household of four who is working, his income is divided by four to derive the income per household member.

(Dollar)

3,204
3,418
3,624
3,688
3,835
3,969
4,115
4,022

1st Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Dollar)

463
494
541
543
554
570
597
560

2nd Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Dollar)

896
971
1,040
1,064
1,093
1,124
1,179
1,141

3rd Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Dollar)

1,268
1,353
1,446
1,483
1,528
1,583
1,647
1,609

4th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Dollar)

1,633
1,747
1,857
1,892
1,958
2,033
2,131
2,085

5th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Dollar)

2,033
2,155
2,274
2,339
2,434
2,522
2,647
2,603

6th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Dollar)

2,483
2,627
2,780
2,864
2,994
3,082
3,250
3,201

7th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Dollar)

3,039
3,217
3,409
3,521
3,670
3,804
4,036
3,940

8th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Dollar)

3,837
4,060
4,276
4,438
4,629
4,833
5,080
4,972

9th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Dollar)

5,192
5,524
5,804
5,958
6,279
6,559
6,843
6,712

10th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Dollar)

11,198
12,032
12,816
12,773
13,215
13,581
13,737
13,400

Real Change In Average Monthly Household Income From Work Per Household Member (Including Employer CPF Contributions) * Household income from work per household member refers to the household income from work divided by the total number of members in the household. For example, if there is one person in a household of four who is working, his income is divided by four to derive the income per household member. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is used as the deflator to compute real income changes.

(Per Cent)

-0.4
5.6
6.6
2.3
3.4
3
3.1
-2.1

1st Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Per Cent)

2.4
5.1
10.7
1.4
2.1
2.7
4.4
-6.1

2nd Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Per Cent)

1.9
6.7
8.3
3.4
2.8
2.6
4.6
-3.2

3rd Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Per Cent)

3.2
5.5
7.2
3
2.5
3.2
3.6
-2.2

4th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Per Cent)

3.1
5.8
6.7
2.4
3
3.4
4.3
-2

5th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Per Cent)

3.6
4.8
5.9
3.3
3.6
3.2
4.5
-1.5

6th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Per Cent)

3
4.6
6.2
3.5
4
2.5
5
-1.4

7th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Per Cent)

2.6
4.6
6.3
3.8
3.7
3.2
5.6
-2.2

8th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Per Cent)

2.4
4.6
5.7
4.3
3.8
4
4.6
-2

9th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Per Cent)

1.5
5.6
5.8
3.2
4.5
4
3.5
-1.8

10th Decile * The deciles are derived based on the ranking of resident employed households by their monthly household income from work per household member (including employer CPF contributions). It is notable, for example, that some resident employed households in the lowest 10% owned a car (13.9%), employed a maid (13.5%), lived in private property (7.6%) or were with household reference persons aged 65 years and over (30.0%) in 2020. It is also important to recognise that not all households are consistently in the same decile group from one year to the next. For example, an employed household may move down from a higher decile in a particular year due to the temporary unemployment of a household member, before moving up the deciles when the member resumes work in the subsequent year. In comparing the performance of any particular decile group over time, it is therefore relevant to note that the comparison may not pertain to the same group of households.

(Per Cent)

-5.2
6.7
7.2
0.2
2.6
2.3
0.4
-2.3

Gini Coefficient Based On Household Income From Work Per Household Member (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Before Accounting For Government Transfers And Taxes * Internationally, there are differences in computation methods adopted by different countries, although the basic concept of Gini remains the same. One major difference is in the equivalence scale adopted. Equivalence scales take into account economies of scale within the household, and adjust for household size so that households with different sizes and compositions are comparable. There are different scales used by different countries and international organisations. Household income from work per household member refers to the household income from work divided by the total number of members in the household. For example, if there is one person in a household of four who is working, his income is divided by four to derive the income per household member.

0.463
0.464
0.463
0.458
0.459
0.458
0.452
0.452

Gini Coefficient Based On Equivalised Household Income From Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Before Accounting For Government Transfers And Taxes (Based On Modified OECD Scale) * Internationally, there are differences in computation methods adopted by different countries, although the basic concept of Gini remains the same. One major difference is in the equivalence scale adopted. Equivalence scales take into account economies of scale within the household, and adjust for household size so that households with different sizes and compositions are comparable. There are different scales used by different countries and international organisations. The modified OECD scale assigns the first adult in the household a weight of 1 point, and each additional adult a weight of 0.5 points and each child a weight of 0.3 points. Equivalised household income is derived by dividing the total household income by the sum of the points allocated to all the household members. The modified OECD scale is used by Eurostat, the UK and Australia.

0.442
0.444
0.44
0.435
0.437
0.435
0.431
0.431

Gini Coefficient Based On Equivalised Household Income From Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Before Accounting For Government Transfers And Taxes (Based On Square Root Scale) * Internationally, there are differences in computation methods adopted by different countries, although the basic concept of Gini remains the same. One major difference is in the equivalence scale adopted. Equivalence scales take into account economies of scale within the household, and adjust for household size so that households with different sizes and compositions are comparable. There are different scales used by different countries and international organisations. Based on the square root scale, individuals are ranked by their household income on a per equivalised member basis, which is derived by dividing household income by the square root of household size. This follows the approach adopted by Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) in some reports. In following this approach, individuals such as children and maids would also be ranked. It is also noted that some OECD countries publish their own Gini using a different equivalence scale, and not the square root scale.

0.421
0.425
0.415
0.41
0.417
0.412
0.411
0.415

Gini Coefficient Based On Household Income From Work Per Household Member (Including Employer CPF Contributions) After Accounting For Government Transfers And Taxes * Internationally, there are differences in computation methods adopted by different countries, although the basic concept of Gini remains the same. One major difference is in the equivalence scale adopted. Equivalence scales take into account economies of scale within the household, and adjust for household size so that households with different sizes and compositions are comparable. There are different scales used by different countries and international organisations. Household income from work per household member refers to the household income from work divided by the total number of members in the household. For example, if there is one person in a household of four who is working, his income is divided by four to derive the income per household member. Data on income after accounting for government transfers and taxes for 2020 are preliminary. Similar to past practices, as more administrative data on Government transfers or taxes become available, the coverage has been expanded to include more types of transfers.

0.409
0.411
0.409
0.401
0.402
0.403
0.398
0.375

Gini Coefficient Based On Equivalised Household Income From Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) After Accounting For Government Transfers And Taxes (Based On Modified OECD Scale) * Internationally, there are differences in computation methods adopted by different countries, although the basic concept of Gini remains the same. One major difference is in the equivalence scale adopted. Equivalence scales take into account economies of scale within the household, and adjust for household size so that households with different sizes and compositions are comparable. There are different scales used by different countries and international organisations. The modified OECD scale assigns the first adult in the household a weight of 1 point, each additional adult a weight of 0.5 points and each child a weight of 0.3 points. Equivalised household income is derived by dividing the total household income by the sum of the points allocated to all the household members. The modified OECD scale is used by Eurostat, the UK and Australia. Data on income after accounting for government transfers and taxes for 2020 are preliminary. Similar to past practices, as more administrative data on Government transfers or taxes become available, the coverage has been expanded to include more types of transfers.

0.388
0.392
0.386
0.379
0.382
0.38
0.377
0.354

Gini Coefficient Based On Equivalised Household Income From Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) After Accounting For Government Transfers And Taxes (Based On Square Root Scale) * Internationally, there are differences in computation methods adopted by different countries, although the basic concept of Gini remains the same. One major difference is in the equivalence scale adopted. Equivalence scales take into account economies of scale within the household, and adjust for household size so that households with different sizes and compositions are comparable. There are different scales used by different countries and international organisations. Based on the square root scale, individuals are ranked by their household income on a per equivalised member basis, which is derived by dividing household income by the square root of household size. This follows the approach adopted by Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) in some reports. In following this approach, individuals such as children and maids would also be ranked. It is also noted that some OECD countries publish their own Gini using a different equivalence scale, and not the square root scale. Data on income after accounting for government transfers and taxes for 2020 are preliminary. Similar to past practices, as more administrative data on Government transfers or taxes become available, the coverage has been expanded to include more types of transfers.

0.363
0.369
0.357
0.35
0.357
0.354
0.353
0.335
SOURCE : SINGAPORE DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

Household Expenditure

Data on household expenditure are based the results from the quinquennial Household Expenditure Survey (HES). The HES collects detailed information on the consumption expenditure of resident households in Singapore, as well as households’ demographic and socio-economic characteristics and ownership of consumer durables.

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Other References

Households
Population Trends View
Household Expenditure
Report on the Household Expenditure Survey 2017/18 View
Household Income
Key Household Income Trends View