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Labour Force

Labour force data are based on the mid-year Labour Force Surveys conducted by the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) every year except for 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 which are based on the Censuses of Population and the mid-decade General Household Surveys conducted by the Singapore Department of Statistics. The data refer to persons aged fifteen years and over. The reference period refers to the week preceding the date of interview.

Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications

The Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) is a national credential system that trains, develops, assesses and certifies skills and competencies for the workforce. The WSQ programmes are funded and quality-assured by SkillsFuture Singapore, which awards the WSQ certifications.

Employment Assistance

Singapore citizens and permanent residents may seek employment assistance through physical and digital touch points of Workforce Singapore (WSG) and National Trades Union Congress (NTUC)’s Employment and Employability Institute (e2i). Statistics on job seekers assisted and placed into employment are compiled by WSG.

Multifactor Productivity

Multifactor productivity (MFP) relates output to a set of combined inputs, usually labour and capital. A change in MFP reflects the change in output that cannot be accounted for by the change in combined inputs. MFP therefore measures the effects of changes such as technological progress and changes in the organisation of production.

Central Provident Fund

The Central Provident Fund (CPF) is a key pillar of Singapore's social security system. It enables Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents to set aside funds to build a strong foundation for retirement, and also addresses members’ housing and healthcare needs.

 

Data

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View latest data:

Key Indicators
Items Unit Latest Period Latest Data % Change
(Y-o-Y) 1/
Previous
Period Data
% Change
(Y-o-Y) 2/
Labour, Employment, Wages and Productivity            
Employment Level (quarterly) 3/ '000 Dec-23 4,000.7 2.8 3,988.1 3.7
Employment Change (quarterly) 3/ '000 Dec-23 12.6 na 29.2 na
Unemployment (seasonally adjusted) (quarterly) % of labour force Dec-23 2.0 na 2.0 na
Value Added per Worker Growth  % 4Q 2023 -0.8 na -3.1 na
Total Labour Force 4/ '000  2023 3,936.3 na 3,754.2 na
Resident Labour Force 5/ '000  2023 2,436.2 na 2,438.0 na
Items Unit Latest Period Latest Data % Change
(Y-o-Y) 1/
Previous
Period Data
% Change
(Y-o-Y) 2/
Employed Persons 4/ '000  2023 3,840.3 na

3,656.2

na
Employed Residents 5/ '000  2023 2,352.3 na 2,350.4 na
Unemployment Rate (seasonally adjusted) 4/ % 2023 1.9 na 2.1 na
Resident Unemployment Rate (seasonally adjusted) 5/ % 2023 2.7 na 2.8 na
Labour Force Participation Rate 5/6/ % 2023 68.6 na 70.0 na
Males % 2023 74.9 na 77.0 na
Females % 2023 62.6 na 63.4 na
Annual Growth in Value Added per Worker % 2023 -3.6 na -0.9 na

Employment

Title : Employed Residents Aged 15 Years And Over By Industry And Occupation, (June), Annual

Thousand

Data Items

2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023

All Occupation Groups, (Total Employed Residents)

2,165.3
2,175.3
2,203.7
2,230.4
2,222.6
2,286.5
2,350.4
2,352.3

Manufacturing

227.2
223.4
227.8
214.4
213
212.1
224.9
212

Construction

101.2
100.7
104.4
98
97.2
98.4
97.7
94.3

Services

1,816.9
1,829.4
1,849.9
1,894.5
1,891.3
1,952.6
2,006
2,024.8

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

364.1
356.2
352.5
356
335.1
338.6
351.8
335.8

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

188.4
195.9
199
205.5
214.8
200.6
207.4
214.3

Accommodation & Food Services

138.2
134.4
134.4
131.8
128.9
125.2
126.6
139.5

Information & Communications

87
91.3
94.1
102.6
111.4
120.4
132.8
136

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

190.7
189.6
196
209.4
207.9
225.2
235.8
236.2

Real Estate Services

53.5
57.6
54
48.7
49.8
51
59.7
57.2

Professional Services

163
170.8
174.4
181.5
181.4
196.5
197.6
199.8

Administrative & Support Services

115.9
114.7
117.9
120
128.3
120
120.3
125.2

Public Administration & Education Services

294.9
293.7
296.9
304.3
293.9
315.6
309.6
305.6

Health & Social Services

115.9
124.8
126
136.2
139.9
152.9
160.3
168.4

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

40.4
35.2
37.7
34.3
34.4
33
34.5
35.6

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

64.9
65.5
67.1
64.1
65.4
73.5
69.8
71.3

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

20
21.7
21.6
23.5
21.2
23.4
21.9
21.3

Managers & Administrators (Including Working Proprietors)

337.5
348.8
341.6
364.9
368.3
377.7
407.7
369.9

Manufacturing

39.3
42.7
38.4
40.4
37
39.4
44
36.8

Construction

25
23.8
23.6
25.1
20.4
24.3
23.6
20.2

Services

270.4
279.4
277.6
295.9
308.3
311
337.2
309.7

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

82.4
89.8
84.8
82
79.5
87
92.1
76.6

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

16.9
17.2
18.2
18.7
15.5
17.7
18.3
18

Accommodation & Food Services

11.6
12.7
10.3
11.5
9.2
10
9.8
9.7

Information & Communications

22.2
24.8
24.7
28.1
32.5
30.1
33.8
32.9

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

41.8
39.6
44.3
49.6
54.1
47.8
57.8
60.4

Real Estate Services

7.6
7.1
7.4
6.3
6.1
5.7
7.5
8.9

Professional Services

32.1
35.8
34.7
37.7
43.2
42.8
42.5
38.3

Administrative & Support Services

11.9
10.3
10.5
10.9
12.3
12.6
12.9
12.2

Public Administration & Education Services

25.4
23.3
24
30.1
31.7
34.4
37.1
31.1

Health & Social Services

6.9
7.5
6.9
8.4
11.3
9.7
11.5
9.8

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

4
3.5
5.1
5.2
4.5
4.2
4.7
4.6

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

7.7
7.9
6.7
7.4
8.5
9.1
9.3
7.4

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

2.7
2.8
2
3.5
2.6
2.9
2.9
3.1

Professionals

419.8
437.6
449.2
469.4
504.2
577.5
600.9
620.6

Manufacturing

47.7
41.8
46.9
45.1
51.1
52.6
59.7
56.1

Construction

9.8
11.8
13.3
11.7
17.2
15.8
16.9
18.5

Services

358.3
379.4
384.5
407.3
430.6
504
517.6
540.8

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

38.5
39.4
40.1
42.4
49.1
53.3
57.1
59.6

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

12.1
12.8
13.7
15.1
17.8
19.5
18.2
18

Accommodation & Food Services

1.6
1.9
1.7
1.8
2.8
2.5
2.9
3.4

Information & Communications

30.5
33.3
36.4
39.2
42.9
52.7
59.3
65.7

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

62.8
69.2
64.8
71.6
70.8
92.8
91.8
94.6

Real Estate Services

3.1
4.7
4.3
4.4
6.7
5.5
6.8
4.8

Professional Services

58.1
62.7
62.7
64.9
67.9
79.7
80.3
85.8

Administrative & Support Services

7.3
7.3
8.3
8.7
11.6
11.2
11.8
12.9

Public Administration & Education Services

87.1
90.5
90
94.6
96.8
112.4
110.9
112.4

Health & Social Services

45.7
47.7
50.7
54
51.8
59.6
64.4
68

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

5
3.5
3.4
3.1
4.8
4.4
4.4
4.9

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

6.4
6.4
8.2
7.6
7.5
10.4
9.6
10.9

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

4
4.7
4.5
5.3
5.3
5.1
6.7
5.2

Associate Professionals & Technicians

438.1
436.2
465
467.9
458.2
465.8
485.7
482.5

Manufacturing

56.5
53.9
59.6
56
50.5
52
54.9
50.9

Construction

16.7
17
20
18.7
20.3
20.2
19.5
20.3

Services

359.8
359.3
378.9
386.8
381.6
387.3
405.9
405.5

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

63.6
62.3
62.5
69.8
68.7
60.8
68
65

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

29.3
27.7
30.9
28.7
32.6
32
37.4
39.5

Accommodation & Food Services

10.4
9.7
13.6
10.5
13.3
11.7
13.4
15.4

Information & Communications

18.8
20.6
19.7
21.4
23
23
23.8
23.6

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

46.5
44.1
46.1
46.3
47.1
49.6
51.3
47

Real Estate Services

23.3
26.7
27.1
26.3
25.6
26.4
28.5
26.6

Professional Services

40
38.1
43.4
46.3
41.8
43.4
46.5
46.1

Administrative & Support Services

15.5
13.2
12.9
16.3
17.2
13.5
12.8
15.5

Public Administration & Education Services

67.4
69.3
72.7
71.6
63.8
70.2
66.3
65

Health & Social Services

24.5
26.6
28.8
29.3
27.3
34.3
36.4
39.7

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

9.9
11
9.6
9.2
9.6
9.7
10
10

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

10.6
10.2
11.5
11.2
11.9
12.7
11.5
12.1

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

5
5.9
6.5
6.3
5.7
6.3
5.4
5.7

Clerical Support Workers

244.9
247.9
241
237.2
215.6
223.4
211.8
207.8

Manufacturing

21.7
24.6
23.7
21.5
21.5
17.8
17.9
20.7

Construction

13.3
14.3
13.8
11.8
11.9
13.1
11.8
11

Services

208
206.9
201.8
201.2
180.5
190.6
180.5
175

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

49.5
47.2
42.1
42
36.2
39.8
34.3
32.5

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

26.1
25.3
27.8
26.4
23
21.8
22.1
22.3

Accommodation & Food Services

6.9
7.9
9
7.4
9.4
8.4
7.6
9

Information & Communications

10.2
8.3
9.5
9
8.2
8.7
9.4
7

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

28.5
27.4
28.5
28.9
23
24.5
23.3
22

Real Estate Services

6.7
7.1
5.7
4.5
4.7
6
5.4
4.9

Professional Services

20.1
23.2
21.6
20.5
17.5
19.7
18
17.6

Administrative & Support Services

11.5
11.7
11.2
13.2
12.6
10.7
10.7
12.8

Public Administration & Education Services

20
19.3
19.1
19.6
16.9
18.1
17.7
15.9

Health & Social Services

14.8
16.5
14.7
16.2
16.8
18.5
19
17.8

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

5.3
4.2
4.9
5.1
3.6
4.1
4.8
4.7

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

8.4
8.8
7.7
8.4
8.3
10.3
8.2
8.6

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

1.9
2.1
1.7
2.7
1.8
1.9
1.6
1.2

Service & Sales Workers

262.4
248
262.7
257.7
252.3
239.2
241.2
257.9

Manufacturing

5.6
6.2
5.6
6.5
6.9
8.3
7.3
8.4

Construction

1
1
1.3
1.1
1.5
1.7
1.1
1.4

Services

255.4
240.4
255.6
249.5
243.4
228.3
232
247.4

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

85
75.1
82.7
77.6
64.9
56.7
59.4
61.6

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

11.5
11.2
10.8
11.8
11.3
9.1
8
10.5

Accommodation & Food Services

59.6
57.2
56.5
55.4
57.3
57.8
58
64.9

Information & Communications

1.9
1.8
1.6
2.1
1.6
2.2
2.2
1.9

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

3.4
2.9
5.3
5
5.6
4.4
5
5.2

Real Estate Services

2.1
2.5
1.7
2.2
1.9
2
3.2
3.3

Professional Services

3
2.7
3.2
3.5
3
3
3.1
3.3

Administrative & Support Services

27
25.8
29.6
30.2
28.8
27.4
29.7
29.9

Public Administration & Education Services

18.3
18.3
18.5
18.1
20.2
20
18.1
17.3

Health & Social Services

13.5
16.1
14.7
17.1
22
20.6
19.3
21.4

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

11.9
9.6
11.5
9.5
9.3
8.2
7.9
8.5

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

18.2
17.2
19.4
17
17.4
16.9
18.2
19.5

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.9
0.7
0.7

Craftsmen & Related Trades Workers

79.2
76
70
67.8
62.5
57.9
53.3
58.8

Manufacturing

23.5
23.4
21.9
19.4
18.2
16.3
15.6
15.9

Construction

21.3
18.9
18.6
16.7
16.1
14
14
14.3

Services

33.2
32.4
28.4
31
26.8
26.3
23.2
27.6

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

10.5
9.6
7.5
10.8
9.6
9.7
8.4
10.6

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

3.1
3.1
2.4
2.3
2.7
1.6
1.4
2

Accommodation & Food Services

1.6
2.1
2.2
1.6
1
1.2
1.1
1.5

Information & Communications

1.1
1.1
0.6
1
0.7
1
1
0.8

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

1.5
1.2
1.2
1.7
1.4
0.9
1.3
1

Real Estate Services

2.1
1.8
1.6
1.2
1.3
0.4
1.3
1.1

Professional Services

3.8
2.8
3
4
2.6
2.6
1.4
2.7

Administrative & Support Services

3
2.5
2.9
2.5
3.3
2.8
2.5
2.6

Public Administration & Education Services

0.4
0.7
0.9
1.2
0.6
0.9
0.9
0.7

Health & Social Services

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.1

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

0.8
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.8
0.1
0.2
0.4

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

5.2
6.8
5.5
4.1
2.8
4.5
3.5
4

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

1.1
1.2
1.1
0.7
1.4
1.3
0.6
1

Plant & Machine Operators & Assemblers

151.1
151.5
147.9
151.4
151.7
137
135.7
132

Manufacturing

22.9
21.4
22.1
17.3
16.4
15.6
14.5
11.8

Construction

7.7
7.6
7.5
7
4.9
4.9
5.8
4.2

Services

118.9
121.3
117.1
125.7
128.7
115.2
114.1
115

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

19.2
17.3
16.7
17.2
13.6
16
15.2
12.7

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

78.9
87.8
82.9
91.2
99.5
84.8
84.2
87.7

Accommodation & Food Services

2.4
2.4
2.5
2
1.8
2.2
2.3
2.3

Information & Communications

1.4
0.6
0.6
0.7
1.1
1
1.3
1.6

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

2.6
2.1
2.6
3.7
2.6
2.6
2
1.7

Real Estate Services

0.7
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.4

Professional Services

2.9
2.5
3.3
2.1
2.1
1.8
2.3
2.3

Administrative & Support Services

4.6
3.6
2.9
2.6
3.2
2.4
2.7
2.3

Public Administration & Education Services

0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.8
0.7

Health & Social Services

1.3
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.2
1
1.1

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

0.6
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.4

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

3.8
2.4
3.2
3.5
2.2
2
1.7
1.9

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

1.6
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.8
1.3
1.3
1

Cleaners, Labourers & Related Workers

160.7
160.5
156.4
149.4
149.5
151.5
158.4
162.1

Manufacturing

9.8
9.2
9.5
8.1
11.3
10
11.1
11.2

Construction

6.1
6.2
6.1
5.9
4.9
4.3
4.7
4.3

Services

142.1
142.2
137.8
133.4
131.4
134.3
140.3
143.9

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

15
15.2
15.8
13.8
13.3
14.8
17.1
16.5

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

10.4
10.9
12.2
11.3
12.4
14.2
17.8
16.3

Accommodation & Food Services

44
40.3
38.6
41.5
33.9
31.4
31.6
33.4

Information & Communications

1
0.8
0.8
1.1
1.3
1.6
2
2.3

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

3.5
3
3.2
2.4
3.4
2.6
3.3
4.3

Real Estate Services

7.9
7.1
5.8
3.5
3
4.5
6.4
7.2

Professional Services

2.8
2.9
2.5
2.5
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.7

Administrative & Support Services

34.2
39.2
37.9
34.5
37.6
37.7
35.7
35.3

Public Administration & Education Services

6.9
5.8
5.2
6.9
5.9
6
5
5.5

Health & Social Services

8.9
8.9
8.5
9.4
9
8.6
8.4
10.4

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

2.9
2.4
2.5
1.4
1.5
1.9
2.1
2.1

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

4.5
5.6
4.8
5
6.8
7.7
7.6
6.8

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

2.8
3
3
2
1.9
2.8
2.3
2.7

Other Occupation Groups Nes * Includes agricultural and fishery workers and workers not classifiable by occupation.

71.6
68.9
69.8
64.8
60.4
56.5
55.8
60.7

Manufacturing

0.1
0.1
0.1
-
0.1
0.1
Na
Na

Construction

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
Na

Services

70.8
68.1
68.4
63.7
59.9
55.6
55.1
60

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.7

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.1

Accommodation & Food Services

-
0.1
-
0.1
0.1
0.1
Na
Na

Information & Communications

-
-
0.1
-
0.1
0.1
Na
Na

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

-
-
0.1
0.1
-
0.1
0.1
0.1

Real Estate Services

-
0.1
-
-
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

Professional Services

0.1
-
-
0.1
-
0.1
0.1
0.1

Administrative & Support Services

0.8
1.1
1.6
1.1
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.6

Public Administration & Education Services

69.1
65.9
66.1
61.7
57.7
53.2
52.8
57

Health & Social Services

0.1
0.3
0.2
0.1
-
-
0.1
Na

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

0.1
0.2
-
0.3
0.1
-
0.1
0.1

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

0.1
0.2
0.1
-
-
0.1
0.2
0.2

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

0.5
0.6
1.2
0.9
0.3
0.8
0.5
0.7
SOURCE : MINISTRY OF MANPOWER & SINGAPORE DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

Sources of Data

Average Monthly Recruitment/Resignation Rate and Average Weekly Paid Hours Worked

Statistics on average monthly recruitment/resignation rate and average weekly paid hours worked are compiled from the Labour Market Survey. Prior to 2006, the survey covered private establishments with at least 25 employees. From 2006, the survey also includes the public sector comprising government ministries, organs of state and statutory boards.

Labour Relations

Statistics on Employers’ and Employees’ Trade Unions and Trade Disputes are compiled by MOM’s Labour Relations and Workplaces Division (LRWD). The LRWD monitors the industrial relations situation and provides mediation and conciliation services for the settlement of trade disputes. The Division also investigates complaints on infringements of the Employment Act which governs the terms and conditions of employment.

Statistics on Collective Agreements and Industrial Arbitration Court Awards are obtained from the Industrial Arbitration Court (IAC). The IAC was set up in 1960 under the Industrial Relations Act. Its functions include the registration and certification of collective agreements, hearing and determination of trade disputes and handing down of awards and interpretation and enforcement of terms of awards and collective agreements.

 

Definitions

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Other References

Manpower
Singapore Yearbook of Manpower Statistics View
Labour Force in Singapore View
Census of Population 2020 View
Labour Cost
Quarterly Unit Labour Cost Index by Industry View

External Sources

Manpower
Ministry of Manpower View
Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications
SkillsFuture Singapore View
Employment Assistance
Workforce Singapore View
Central Provident Fund matters
Central Provident Fund View