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Labour Force

Labour force data are based on the mid-year Labour Force Surveys conducted by the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) every year except for 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 which are based on the Censuses of Population and the mid-decade General Household Surveys conducted by the Singapore Department of Statistics. The data refer to persons aged fifteen years and over. The reference period refers to the week preceding the date of interview.

Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications

The Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) is a national credential system that trains, develops, assesses and certifies skills and competencies for the workforce. The WSQ programmes are funded and quality-assured by SkillsFuture Singapore, which awards the WSQ certifications.

Employment Assistance

Singapore citizens and permanent residents may seek employment assistance through physical and digital touch points of Workforce Singapore (WSG) and National Trades Union Congress (NTUC)’s Employment and Employability Institute (e2i). Statistics on job seekers assisted and placed into employment are compiled by WSG.

Multifactor Productivity

Multifactor productivity (MFP) relates output to a set of combined inputs, usually labour and capital. A change in MFP reflects the change in output that cannot be accounted for by the change in combined inputs. MFP therefore measures the effects of changes such as technological progress and changes in the organisation of production.

Central Provident Fund

The Central Provident Fund (CPF) is a key pillar of Singapore's social security system. It enables Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents to set aside funds to build a strong foundation for retirement, and also addresses members’ housing and healthcare needs.

 

Data

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Key Indicators
Items Unit Latest Period Latest Data % Change
(Y-o-Y) 1/
Previous
Period Data
% Change
(Y-o-Y) 2/
Labour, Employment, Wages and Productivity            
Employment Level (quarterly) 3/ '000 Jun-22 3,762.0 4.6 3,690.9 2.0
Employment Change (quarterly) 3/ '000 Jun-22 71.1 na 47.4 na
Unemployment (seasonally adjusted) (quarterly) % of labour force Jun-22 2.1 na 2.2 na
Value Added per Worker Growth  % Q2/22 0.8 na 2.2 na
Total Labour Force 4/ '000  2021 3,607.6 na 3,713.9 na
Resident Labour Force 5/ '000  2021  2,397.8 na 2,345.5 na
Items Unit Latest Period Latest Data % Change
(Y-o-Y) 1/
Previous
Period Data
% Change
(Y-o-Y) 2/
Employed Persons 4/ '000  2021 3,483.5 na

3,574.0

na
Employed Residents 5/ '000  2021  2,286.5 na 2,222.6 na
Unemployment Rate (seasonally adjusted) 4/ % 2021 2.7 na 2.9 na
Resident Unemployment Rate (seasonally adjusted) 5/ % 2021 3.5 na 4.0 na
Labour Force Participation Rate (as at June) 6/ % 2021 70.5 na 68.1 na
Males % 2021 77.2 na 75.4 na
Females % 2021 64.2 na 61.2 na
Annual Growth in Value Added per Worker % 2021 9.5 na -2.1 na

Labour Force

Title : Employed Residents Aged 15 Years And Over By Industry And Occupation, (June), Annual

Thousand

Data Items

2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021

All Occupation Groups, (Total Employed Residents)

2,103.5
2,147.8
2,165.3
2,175.3
2,203.7
2,230.4
2,222.6
2,286.5

Manufacturing

249.3
238.6
227.2
223.4
227.8
214.4
213
212.1

Construction

98.2
110.6
101.2
100.7
104.4
98
97.2
98.4

Services

1,731.2
1,775.5
1,816.9
1,829.4
1,849.9
1,894.5
1,891.3
1,952.6

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

346.3
364.1
364.1
356.2
352.5
356
335.1
338.6

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

188.9
187.6
188.4
195.9
199
205.5
214.8
200.6

Accommodation & Food Services

137.1
139.1
138.2
134.4
134.4
131.8
128.9
125.2

Information & Communications

88.4
86.1
87
91.3
94.1
102.6
111.4
120.4

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

165.6
167.3
190.7
189.6
196
209.4
207.9
225.2

Real Estate Services

55.6
55.4
53.5
57.6
54
48.7
49.8
51

Professional Services

153
166.6
163
170.8
174.4
181.5
181.4
196.5

Administrative & Support Services

102
108.9
115.9
114.7
117.9
120
128.3
120

Public Administration & Education Services

285.2
290.7
294.9
293.7
296.9
304.3
293.9
315.6

Health & Social Services

107.7
105.7
115.9
124.8
126
136.2
139.9
152.9

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

35.1
37
40.4
35.2
37.7
34.3
34.4
33

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

66.3
67.1
64.9
65.5
67.1
64.1
65.4
73.5

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

24.8
23.2
20
21.7
21.6
23.5
21.2
23.4

Managers & Administrators (Including Working Proprietors)

351.2
355.8
337.5
348.8
341.6
364.9
368.3
377.7

Manufacturing

44
45.5
39.3
42.7
38.4
40.4
37
39.4

Construction

23.3
28.5
25
23.8
23.6
25.1
20.4
24.3

Services

280.6
278.9
270.4
279.4
277.6
295.9
308.3
311

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

90.6
90.6
82.4
89.8
84.8
82
79.5
87

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

19.9
18.3
16.9
17.2
18.2
18.7
15.5
17.7

Accommodation & Food Services

9.8
11.7
11.6
12.7
10.3
11.5
9.2
10

Information & Communications

23.8
24.6
22.2
24.8
24.7
28.1
32.5
30.1

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

44.5
40.2
41.8
39.6
44.3
49.6
54.1
47.8

Real Estate Services

8
7
7.6
7.1
7.4
6.3
6.1
5.7

Professional Services

33.9
34.6
32.1
35.8
34.7
37.7
43.2
42.8

Administrative & Support Services

11.4
10.8
11.9
10.3
10.5
10.9
12.3
12.6

Public Administration & Education Services

20.9
22.7
25.4
23.3
24
30.1
31.7
34.4

Health & Social Services

7.4
7.3
6.9
7.5
6.9
8.4
11.3
9.7

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

3.3
3.8
4
3.5
5.1
5.2
4.5
4.2

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

7.1
7.3
7.7
7.9
6.7
7.4
8.5
9.1

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

3.2
2.9
2.7
2.8
2
3.5
2.6
2.9

Professionals

383.3
404.1
419.8
437.6
449.2
469.4
504.2
577.5

Manufacturing

50.8
47.3
47.7
41.8
46.9
45.1
51.1
52.6

Construction

9.9
10.7
9.8
11.8
13.3
11.7
17.2
15.8

Services

318.8
341.9
358.3
379.4
384.5
407.3
430.6
504

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

33.1
38.1
38.5
39.4
40.1
42.4
49.1
53.3

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

13.3
13
12.1
12.8
13.7
15.1
17.8
19.5

Accommodation & Food Services

1.8
1.7
1.6
1.9
1.7
1.8
2.8
2.5

Information & Communications

32
29.3
30.5
33.3
36.4
39.2
42.9
52.7

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

48.9
55
62.8
69.2
64.8
71.6
70.8
92.8

Real Estate Services

3.6
3.6
3.1
4.7
4.3
4.4
6.7
5.5

Professional Services

55.4
60.4
58.1
62.7
62.7
64.9
67.9
79.7

Administrative & Support Services

5.4
7.1
7.3
7.3
8.3
8.7
11.6
11.2

Public Administration & Education Services

76.6
85.6
87.1
90.5
90
94.6
96.8
112.4

Health & Social Services

40.8
37.8
45.7
47.7
50.7
54
51.8
59.6

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

3.7
3.4
5
3.5
3.4
3.1
4.8
4.4

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

4.2
7
6.4
6.4
8.2
7.6
7.5
10.4

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

3.7
4.1
4
4.7
4.5
5.3
5.3
5.1

Associate Professionals & Technicians

391.5
408.3
438.1
436.2
465
467.9
458.2
465.8

Manufacturing

54
52.8
56.5
53.9
59.6
56
50.5
52

Construction

12.6
16.2
16.7
17
20
18.7
20.3
20.2

Services

318.1
332.5
359.8
359.3
378.9
386.8
381.6
387.3

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

44.3
58.2
63.6
62.3
62.5
69.8
68.7
60.8

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

23.6
28
29.3
27.7
30.9
28.7
32.6
32

Accommodation & Food Services

13
10.8
10.4
9.7
13.6
10.5
13.3
11.7

Information & Communications

16.7
17.6
18.8
20.6
19.7
21.4
23
23

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

40.1
37.5
46.5
44.1
46.1
46.3
47.1
49.6

Real Estate Services

26
25.9
23.3
26.7
27.1
26.3
25.6
26.4

Professional Services

33.4
36.8
40
38.1
43.4
46.3
41.8
43.4

Administrative & Support Services

10.8
13.1
15.5
13.2
12.9
16.3
17.2
13.5

Public Administration & Education Services

70.9
64.6
67.4
69.3
72.7
71.6
63.8
70.2

Health & Social Services

21.8
20.5
24.5
26.6
28.8
29.3
27.3
34.3

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

8
8.4
9.9
11
9.6
9.2
9.6
9.7

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

9.5
11.1
10.6
10.2
11.5
11.2
11.9
12.7

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

6.9
6.8
5
5.9
6.5
6.3
5.7
6.3

Clerical Support Workers

268.4
267.7
244.9
247.9
241
237.2
215.6
223.4

Manufacturing

26.9
25.2
21.7
24.6
23.7
21.5
21.5
17.8

Construction

12.9
15.8
13.3
14.3
13.8
11.8
11.9
13.1

Services

225.7
224.5
208
206.9
201.8
201.2
180.5
190.6

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

48.1
50.2
49.5
47.2
42.1
42
36.2
39.8

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

32.9
29.3
26.1
25.3
27.8
26.4
23
21.8

Accommodation & Food Services

8.3
7.3
6.9
7.9
9
7.4
9.4
8.4

Information & Communications

10.6
9.7
10.2
8.3
9.5
9
8.2
8.7

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

26.9
27.5
28.5
27.4
28.5
28.9
23
24.5

Real Estate Services

7.8
7
6.7
7.1
5.7
4.5
4.7
6

Professional Services

21.9
23.9
20.1
23.2
21.6
20.5
17.5
19.7

Administrative & Support Services

12
13.6
11.5
11.7
11.2
13.2
12.6
10.7

Public Administration & Education Services

23.4
24
20
19.3
19.1
19.6
16.9
18.1

Health & Social Services

19.6
16.9
14.8
16.5
14.7
16.2
16.8
18.5

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

5.8
5.6
5.3
4.2
4.9
5.1
3.6
4.1

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

8.4
9.4
8.4
8.8
7.7
8.4
8.3
10.3

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

2.8
2.2
1.9
2.1
1.7
2.7
1.8
1.9

Service & Sales Workers

244.3
251.6
262.4
248
262.7
257.7
252.3
239.2

Manufacturing

5
4.7
5.6
6.2
5.6
6.5
6.9
8.3

Construction

1
0.7
1
1
1.3
1.1
1.5
1.7

Services

237.8
245.7
255.4
240.4
255.6
249.5
243.4
228.3

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

87.8
82.1
85
75.1
82.7
77.6
64.9
56.7

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

13.5
9.4
11.5
11.2
10.8
11.8
11.3
9.1

Accommodation & Food Services

50
56.9
59.6
57.2
56.5
55.4
57.3
57.8

Information & Communications

1.5
2.1
1.9
1.8
1.6
2.1
1.6
2.2

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

1.7
2.2
3.4
2.9
5.3
5
5.6
4.4

Real Estate Services

1.4
1.8
2.1
2.5
1.7
2.2
1.9
2

Professional Services

1.3
3
3
2.7
3.2
3.5
3
3

Administrative & Support Services

24.6
25.8
27
25.8
29.6
30.2
28.8
27.4

Public Administration & Education Services

17.2
19.4
18.3
18.3
18.5
18.1
20.2
20

Health & Social Services

10.1
13.2
13.5
16.1
14.7
17.1
22
20.6

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

9.8
12.1
11.9
9.6
11.5
9.5
9.3
8.2

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

18.8
17.7
18.2
17.2
19.4
17
17.4
16.9

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

0.5
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.9

Craftsmen & Related Trades Workers

82.2
83.9
79.2
76
70
67.8
62.5
57.9

Manufacturing

25
26
23.5
23.4
21.9
19.4
18.2
16.3

Construction

22.7
24.1
21.3
18.9
18.6
16.7
16.1
14

Services

33
32.7
33.2
32.4
28.4
31
26.8
26.3

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

9.6
10.6
10.5
9.6
7.5
10.8
9.6
9.7

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

2.9
3.7
3.1
3.1
2.4
2.3
2.7
1.6

Accommodation & Food Services

2.4
2
1.6
2.1
2.2
1.6
1
1.2

Information & Communications

1.5
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.6
1
0.7
1

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

0.6
0.9
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.7
1.4
0.9

Real Estate Services

1.8
1.6
2.1
1.8
1.6
1.2
1.3
0.4

Professional Services

2.7
2.9
3.8
2.8
3
4
2.6
2.6

Administrative & Support Services

3.9
2.5
3
2.5
2.9
2.5
3.3
2.8

Public Administration & Education Services

0.6
0.7
0.4
0.7
0.9
1.2
0.6
0.9

Health & Social Services

0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.5

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

0.7
0.4
0.8
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.8
0.1

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

6.3
6
5.2
6.8
5.5
4.1
2.8
4.5

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

1.5
1.2
1.1
1.2
1.1
0.7
1.4
1.3

Plant & Machine Operators & Assemblers

145.9
146.1
151.1
151.5
147.9
151.4
151.7
137

Manufacturing

32.5
27.2
22.9
21.4
22.1
17.3
16.4
15.6

Construction

8
8
7.7
7.6
7.5
7
4.9
4.9

Services

103.9
109.3
118.9
121.3
117.1
125.7
128.7
115.2

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

16.4
18.3
19.2
17.3
16.7
17.2
13.6
16

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

73
74.2
78.9
87.8
82.9
91.2
99.5
84.8

Accommodation & Food Services

1.9
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2
1.8
2.2

Information & Communications

0.9
0.4
1.4
0.6
0.6
0.7
1.1
1

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

1.2
2.1
2.6
2.1
2.6
3.7
2.6
2.6

Real Estate Services

0.5
0.8
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.5

Professional Services

2
2.7
2.9
2.5
3.3
2.1
2.1
1.8

Administrative & Support Services

2.7
3.7
4.6
3.6
2.9
2.6
3.2
2.4

Public Administration & Education Services

0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4

Health & Social Services

1.4
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.2

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

0.6
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.3

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

2.9
2.7
3.8
2.4
3.2
3.5
2.2
2

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

1.4
1.7
1.6
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.8
1.3

Cleaners, Labourers & Related Workers

166
160.3
160.7
160.5
156.4
149.4
149.5
151.5

Manufacturing

10.9
9.8
9.8
9.2
9.5
8.1
11.3
10

Construction

7.7
6.6
6.1
6.2
6.1
5.9
4.9
4.3

Services

143.7
140.5
142.1
142.2
137.8
133.4
131.4
134.3

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

16.4
15.9
15
15.2
15.8
13.8
13.3
14.8

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

9.8
11.8
10.4
10.9
12.2
11.3
12.4
14.2

Accommodation & Food Services

50
46.5
44
40.3
38.6
41.5
33.9
31.4

Information & Communications

1.2
1.1
1
0.8
0.8
1.1
1.3
1.6

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

1.6
1.8
3.5
3
3.2
2.4
3.4
2.6

Real Estate Services

6.5
7.7
7.9
7.1
5.8
3.5
3
4.5

Professional Services

2.5
2.3
2.8
2.9
2.5
2.5
3.4
3.5

Administrative & Support Services

31.1
31.2
34.2
39.2
37.9
34.5
37.6
37.7

Public Administration & Education Services

6
5.4
6.9
5.8
5.2
6.9
5.9
6

Health & Social Services

6.6
8.5
8.9
8.9
8.5
9.4
9
8.6

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

3
2.5
2.9
2.4
2.5
1.4
1.5
1.9

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

9.1
5.9
4.5
5.6
4.8
5
6.8
7.7

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

3.7
3.5
2.8
3
3
2
1.9
2.8

Other Occupation Groups Nes * Includes agricultural and fishery workers and workers not classifiable by occupation.

70.8
70
71.6
68.9
69.8
64.8
60.4
56.5

Manufacturing

-
-
0.1
0.1
0.1
-
0.1
0.1

Construction

-
-
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1

Services

69.6
69.5
70.8
68.1
68.4
63.7
59.9
55.6

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

0.1
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.5

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

-
-
-
-
-
-
0
0

Accommodation & Food Services

-
-
-
0.1
-
0.1
0.1
0.1

Information & Communications

0.2
-
-
-
0.1
-
0.1
0.1

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

-
-
-
-
0.1
0.1
0
0.1

Real Estate Services

-
-
-
0.1
-
-
0.1
0.1

Professional Services

-
-
0.1
-
-
0.1
0
0.1

Administrative & Support Services

-
1.1
0.8
1.1
1.6
1.1
1.7
1.6

Public Administration & Education Services

69.1
67.9
69.1
65.9
66.1
61.7
57.7
53.2

Health & Social Services

-
-
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
-
0.3
0.1
0

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

-
-
0.1
0.2
0.1
-
0
0.1

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

1.2
0.5
0.5
0.6
1.2
0.9
0.3
0.8
SOURCE : MINISTRY OF MANPOWER & SINGAPORE DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

Average Weekly Paid Hours Worked Per Employee

Sources of Data

Average Monthly Recruitment/Resignation Rate and Average Weekly Paid Hours Worked

Statistics on average monthly recruitment/resignation rate and average weekly paid hours worked are compiled from the Labour Market Survey. Prior to 2006, the survey covered private establishments with at least 25 employees. From 2006, the survey also includes the public sector comprising government ministries, organs of state and statutory boards.

Labour Relations

Statistics on Employers’ and Employees’ Trade Unions and Trade Disputes are compiled by MOM’s Labour Relations and Workplaces Division (LRWD). The LRWD monitors the industrial relations situation and provides mediation and conciliation services for the settlement of trade disputes. The Division also investigates complaints on infringements of the Employment Act which governs the terms and conditions of employment.

Statistics on Collective Agreements and Industrial Arbitration Court Awards are obtained from the Industrial Arbitration Court (IAC). The IAC was set up in 1960 under the Industrial Relations Act. Its functions include the registration and certification of collective agreements, hearing and determination of trade disputes and handing down of awards and interpretation and enforcement of terms of awards and collective agreements.

 

Definitions

Visit Glossary Page

Other References

Manpower
Singapore Yearbook of Manpower Statistics View
Labour Force in Singapore View
Census of Population 2020 View
Labour Cost
Quarterly Unit Labour Cost Index by Industry View

External Sources

Manpower
Ministry of Manpower View
Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications
SkillsFuture Singapore View
Employment Assistance
Workforce Singapore View
Central Provident Fund matters
Central Provident Fund View