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Labour Force

Labour force data are based on the mid-year Labour Force Surveys conducted by the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) every year except for 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 which are based on the Censuses of Population and the mid-decade General Household Surveys conducted by the Singapore Department of Statistics. The data refer to persons aged fifteen years and over. The reference period refers to the week preceding the date of interview.

Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications

The Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) is a national credential system that trains, develops, assesses and certifies skills and competencies for the workforce. The WSQ programmes are funded and quality-assured by SkillsFuture Singapore, which awards the WSQ certifications.

Employment Assistance

Singapore citizens and permanent residents may seek employment assistance at the Workforce Singapore (WSG)’s Careers Connect or National Trades Union Congress (NTUC)’s Employment and Employability Institute centres. Statistics on new registrants for employment and/or training assistance and job seekers placed into employment are compiled by WSG.

Multifactor Productivity

Multifactor productivity relates output to a set of combined inputs, usually labour and capital. A change in multifactor productivity reflects the change in output that cannot be accounted for by the change in combined inputs. Multifactor productivity therefore measures the effects of changes such as technological progress and changes in the organisation of production.

Central Provident Fund

The Central Provident Fund (CPF) is a key pillar of Singapore's social security system. It enables Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents to set aside funds for retirement, and also addresses members’ housing and healthcare needs.

 

Data

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Key Indicators
Items Unit Latest Period Latest Data % Change
(Y-o-Y) 1/
Previous
Period Data
% Change
(Y-o-Y) 2/
Labour, Employment, Wages and Productivity            
Employment Level (quarterly) '000 Jun-21 3,597.4 -1.3 3,617.3 -3.8
Employment Change (quarterly) '000 Jun-21 -19.9 na 14.0 na
Unemployment (seasonally adjusted) (quarterly) % of labour force Jun-21 2.7 na 2.9 na
Value Added per Worker Growth  % Q2/21 16.7 na 6.1 na
Total Labour Force 3/ '000  2020 3,713.9 na 3,742.5 na
Resident Labour Force 4/ '000  2020  2,345.5 na 2,328.5 na
Items Unit Latest Period Latest Data % Change
(Y-o-Y) 1/
Previous
Period Data
% Change
(Y-o-Y) 2/
Employed Persons 3/ '000  2020 3,574 na

3,631.7

na
Employed Residents 4/ '000  2020  2,222.6 na 2,230.4 na
Unemployment Rate (seasonally adjusted) 3/ % 2021 2.7 na 2.8 na
Resident Unemployment Rate (seasonally adjusted) 4/ % 2021 3.5 na 3.9 na
Labour Force Participation Rate (as at June) 5/ % 2020 68.1 na 68.0 na
Males % 2020 75.4 na 75.4 na
Females % 2020 61.2 na 61.1 na
Annual Growth in Value Added per Worker % 2020 -3.4 na -0.2 na

Labour Force

Title : Employed Residents Aged 15 Years And Over By Industry And Occupation, (June), Annual

Thousand

Data Items

2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020

All Occupation Groups, (Total Employed Residents)

2,056.1
2,103.5
2,147.8
2,165.3
2,175.3
2,203.7
2,230.4
2,222.6

Manufacturing

280
249.3
238.7
227.5
223.6
228.2
214.4
213

Construction

101.9
98.2
110.4
100.9
100.6
104
98
97.2

Services

1,647.5
1,731.2
1,775.4
1,816.8
1,829.4
1,849.9
1,894.5
1,891.3

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

302.2
346.3
364.1
364.1
356.2
352.5
356
335.1

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

192.6
188.9
187.6
188.4
195.9
199
205.5
214.8

Accommodation & Food Services

135.1
137.1
139.1
138.2
134.4
134.4
131.8
128.9

Information & Communications

92.1
87.8
83.5
84.6
88.7
92.1
100
111.4

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

147.8
165.6
167.3
190.7
189.6
196
209.4
207.9

Real Estate Services

49.3
55.6
55.4
53.5
57.6
54
48.7
49.8

Professional Services

142.8
153
166.5
162.9
170.8
174.4
181.5
181.4

Administrative & Support Services

99.5
102.7
111.5
118.3
117.3
119.9
122.6
128.3

Public Administration & Education Services

284.8
285.2
290.7
294.9
293.7
296.9
304.3
293.9

Health & Social Services

94.8
107.7
105.7
115.9
124.8
126
136.2
139.9

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

37.2
35.1
37
40.4
35.2
37.7
34.3
34.4

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

69.3
66.3
67.1
64.9
65.5
67.1
64.1
65.4

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

26.8
24.8
23.3
20.2
21.7
21.6
23.5
21.2

Managers & Administrators (Including Working Proprietors)

349.6
342.3
345.3
324.7
333.4
322.8
343.6
368.3

Manufacturing

56.3
43.3
44.6
38.4
41.3
37.3
38.5
37

Construction

25
23.3
28.5
24.9
23.7
23.1
24.6
20.4

Services

263.5
272.5
269.4
258.7
265.8
260.5
277.1
308.3

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

78.8
89.4
89.4
81.2
87.4
82.5
79.4
79.5

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

20.5
19.6
17.9
16.3
16.7
17.6
17.9
15.5

Accommodation & Food Services

12.2
9.7
11.7
11.5
12.8
10.2
11.5
9.2

Information & Communications

25.5
20.4
20.2
17.2
19.9
18.1
21.6
32.5

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

40.3
43.2
38.8
39.6
37.2
41.3
45.9
54.1

Real Estate Services

6.7
8
6.9
7.6
6.9
7.3
6.1
6.1

Professional Services

30.2
33
33.6
31
34.1
33.4
35.9
43.2

Administrative & Support Services

11.6
11.3
11.1
12.1
10.6
10.1
11.1
12.3

Public Administration & Education Services

19.3
20.2
21.7
23.9
21.8
22.2
27.3
31.7

Health & Social Services

6.8
7.3
7.2
6.8
7.3
6.7
8
11.3

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

4.8
3.3
3.7
3.9
3.4
4.7
4.8
4.5

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

6.8
7.1
7.1
7.8
7.6
6.4
7.4
8.5

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

4.7
3.2
2.9
2.8
2.7
1.8
3.5
2.6

Professionals

288.9
290.7
392.9
412.9
435.7
449.7
467.1
504.2

Manufacturing

46.7
43.2
45.4
46.3
41.9
46.4
44.8
51.1

Construction

9.8
8.5
10.2
8.9
11.2
13.2
11.3
17.2

Services

228.7
235.9
333.4
353.9
378
385.5
405.8
430.6

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

16.1
19.3
36.3
37.4
39.3
39.6
41.5
49.1

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

5.9
6.8
12.1
11.8
12.5
13.4
14.4
17.8

Accommodation & Food Services

0.8
0.7
0.9
1
1.1
1.3
1.1
2.8

Information & Communications

30.8
28
32.1
34
36.4
41.6
43.7
42.9

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

30.2
34.9
54.7
63.3
69.8
66.3
73
70.8

Real Estate Services

2.4
2.6
3.1
2.8
4.5
4
4.1
6.7

Professional Services

41.2
44.1
59.1
57
62.5
62.3
64.4
67.9

Administrative & Support Services

3.1
3.3
5.8
6.5
6.7
7.4
7.4
11.6

Public Administration & Education Services

73.3
70.7
82.4
85.3
89.1
88.6
93
96.8

Health & Social Services

17.8
19.9
37.1
44.5
46.8
49.7
53.3
51.8

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

2.9
2.6
3.2
4.7
3.4
3.3
3.1
4.8

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

4.1
3
6.6
5.6
6.2
7.9
6.8
7.5

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

3.7
3.1
3.9
3.8
4.5
4.5
5.2
5.3

Associate Professionals & Technicians

444.5
483.4
428.8
455.2
451
481.5
489.1
458.2

Manufacturing

64
60.5
54.1
56.9
53.3
59.9
55.8
50.5

Construction

13.5
14
16.7
17.6
17.6
20.2
19.6
20.3

Services

359.9
401.8
350.9
375.7
374.2
394.8
407.4
381.6

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

43.8
59
60.9
65.7
63.7
64.6
72.4
68.7

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

32.4
30.2
29
30.2
28.4
31.8
30.2
32.6

Accommodation & Food Services

4.5
7.1
11.5
11.2
10.5
14.1
11.1
13.3

Information & Communications

21.3
23.6
18.1
18.9
20.7
20.1
21.7
23

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

44.8
55.4
39.1
48.1
45.8
47.5
48.6
47.1

Real Estate Services

27.7
27
26.5
23.6
27.1
27.6
26.6
25.6

Professional Services

40.1
45.5
39
41.9
40
44.8
48.4
41.8

Administrative & Support Services

12.1
13.3
15.2
17.3
15.1
15
19.1
17.2

Public Administration & Education Services

76
77.5
68.8
70.7
72.3
75.9
76.1
63.8

Health & Social Services

38.7
43.6
22.3
26.5
28.8
31.2
31.7
27.3

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

8.5
8.9
8.7
10.2
11.1
10.1
9.4
9.6

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

10.1
10.7
11.7
11.4
10.6
12.1
12
11.9

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

7.2
7.1
7
5
6
6.6
6.2
5.7

Clerical Support Workers

268
265.3
264.5
241.1
244.2
237.7
233.6
215.6

Manufacturing

34.2
26.9
25.2
21.7
24.6
23.7
21.4
21.5

Construction

11.9
12.9
15.8
13.3
14.3
13.7
11.8
11.9

Services

218.3
222.7
221.4
204.3
203.2
198.6
197.7
180.5

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

40.7
48.1
50.1
49.4
47.1
42.1
41.8
36.2

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

30.1
30.2
26.7
23.1
22.5
25.2
23.5
23

Accommodation & Food Services

8.1
8.3
7.3
6.8
7.9
8.9
7.4
9.4

Information & Communications

9.6
10.4
8.7
9.4
7.5
8.6
8.3
8.2

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

29.2
26.8
27.5
28.4
27.3
28.3
28.6
23

Real Estate Services

6.7
7.8
7
6.7
7.1
5.7
4.5
4.7

Professional Services

23
21.8
23.8
20.1
23.2
21.6
20.4
17.5

Administrative & Support Services

13.6
12.1
14.6
12
12
11.9
13.9
12.6

Public Administration & Education Services

24.2
23.4
23.9
20
19.2
19.1
19.6
16.9

Health & Social Services

18.5
19.6
16.9
14.8
16.4
14.7
16.2
16.8

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

5.7
5.7
5.6
5.3
4.2
4.9
5.1
3.6

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

8.9
8.4
9.4
8.4
8.8
7.6
8.4
8.3

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

3.6
2.8
2.2
1.9
2.1
1.7
2.7
1.8

Service & Sales Workers

256.4
256.4
255.9
267.8
252.1
266.1
261.6
252.3

Manufacturing

5.3
5.3
4.9
5.8
6.2
5.8
6.7
6.9

Construction

0.8
1
0.8
1.1
1
1.3
1.1
1.5

Services

249.9
249.7
249.8
260.4
244.5
258.7
253.1
243.4

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

91.9
88.2
82.5
85.4
75.4
83
78
64.9

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

18
17.3
13
15.6
15
14.2
15.4
11.3

Accommodation & Food Services

55.5
57.2
56.9
59.8
57.3
56.6
55.5
57.3

Information & Communications

2
1.6
1.8
1.8
1.6
1.5
2
1.6

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

1.2
1.9
2.3
3.7
3.2
5.5
5.5
5.6

Real Estate Services

1
1.5
1.9
2.2
2.5
1.7
2.3
1.9

Professional Services

1.8
1.6
3.3
3.1
2.9
3.3
3.7
3

Administrative & Support Services

22.6
25
26.2
27.4
26.5
30
30.6
28.8

Public Administration & Education Services

17.8
17.2
19.6
18.3
18.3
18.4
17.9
20.2

Health & Social Services

7.2
9.3
12.3
12.9
15
13.4
15.7
22

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

11.3
10.1
12.1
11.9
9.6
11.5
9.5
9.3

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

19.5
18.9
17.8
18.2
17.2
19.5
17.1
17.4

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.5

Craftsmen & Related Trades Workers

82.2
82.2
83.9
79.2
76
70
67.8
62.5

Manufacturing

26.2
25
26.1
23.6
23.5
21.9
19.4
18.2

Construction

25.5
22.7
24
21.2
18.8
18.6
16.7
16.1

Services

29.2
33
32.7
33.2
32.4
28.4
31
26.8

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

5.7
9.6
10.6
10.5
9.6
7.5
10.8
9.6

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

2.7
2.9
3.7
3.1
3.1
2.4
2.3
2.7

Accommodation & Food Services

1.5
2.4
2
1.6
2.1
2.2
1.6
1

Information & Communications

1.2
1.5
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.6
1
0.7

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

0.4
0.6
0.9
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.7
1.4

Real Estate Services

1.1
1.8
1.6
2.1
1.8
1.6
1.2
1.3

Professional Services

2.4
2.7
2.9
3.8
2.8
3
4
2.6

Administrative & Support Services

3.5
3.9
2.5
3
2.6
2.9
2.5
3.3

Public Administration & Education Services

0.5
0.6
0.7
0.4
0.7
0.9
1.2
0.6

Health & Social Services

0.1
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

0.8
0.7
0.4
0.8
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.8

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

9.3
6.3
6
5.2
6.8
5.5
4.1
2.8

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

1.4
1.5
1.2
1.1
1.2
1.1
0.7
1.4

Plant & Machine Operators & Assemblers

147.7
146.4
146.2
152.1
153.6
149.7
153.5
151.7

Manufacturing

37.1
34.3
28.6
24.9
23.5
23.6
19.7
16.4

Construction

8.2
8
7.9
7.6
7.6
7.6
7
4.9

Services

100.1
102.3
107.9
117.8
121.2
117.2
125.3
128.7

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

13
16.3
18.2
19.2
18.2
17.1
17.8
13.6

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

72.3
72.1
73.4
77.9
86.9
82.3
90.5
99.5

Accommodation & Food Services

2.9
1.9
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2
1.8

Information & Communications

0.5
0.8
0.4
1.2
0.6
0.7
0.6
1.1

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

0.9
1.1
2.1
2.5
2.1
2.7
3.6
2.6

Real Estate Services

0.2
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.4

Professional Services

2.2
1.8
2.5
3
2.4
3.5
2.2
2.1

Administrative & Support Services

2.8
2.5
3.7
4.8
3.6
2.8
2.5
3.2

Public Administration & Education Services

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4

Health & Social Services

0.9
1.3
1.1
1.2
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.5

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

0.3
0.6
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.2

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

3.4
2.9
2.7
3.8
2.5
3.2
3.4
2.2

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

2.2
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.8

Cleaners, Labourers & Related Workers

150.2
166
160.3
160.7
160.5
156.4
149.4
149.5

Manufacturing

10.2
10.9
9.8
9.8
9.2
9.5
8.1
11.3

Construction

7.2
7.7
6.6
6.1
6.2
6.1
5.9
4.9

Services

129.6
143.7
140.5
142.1
142.2
137.8
133.4
131.4

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

12
16.4
15.9
15
15.2
15.8
13.8
13.3

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

10.8
9.8
11.8
10.4
10.9
12.2
11.3
12.4

Accommodation & Food Services

49.6
50
46.5
44
40.3
38.6
41.5
33.9

Information & Communications

1.1
1.2
1.1
1
0.8
0.8
1.1
1.3

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

0.8
1.6
1.8
3.5
3
3.2
2.4
3.4

Real Estate Services

3.5
6.5
7.7
7.9
7.1
5.8
3.5
3

Professional Services

1.7
2.5
2.3
2.8
2.9
2.5
2.5
3.4

Administrative & Support Services

30.1
31.1
31.2
34.2
39.2
37.9
34.6
37.6

Public Administration & Education Services

5.3
6
5.4
6.9
5.8
5.2
6.9
5.9

Health & Social Services

4.8
6.6
8.5
8.9
8.9
8.5
9.4
9

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

2.8
3
2.5
2.9
2.4
2.5
1.4
1.5

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

7
9.1
5.9
4.5
5.6
4.8
5
6.8

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

3.1
3.7
3.5
2.8
3
3
2
1.9

Other Occupation Groups Nes * Includes agricultural and fishery workers and workers not classifiable by occupation.

68.7
70.8
70
71.6
68.9
69.8
64.8
60.4

Manufacturing

0
0
0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0
0.1

Construction

0
0
0
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1

Services

68.2
69.6
69.5
70.8
68.1
68.4
63.7
59.9

Wholesale & Retail Trade * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to wholesale, retail, hotels and restaurants.

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.3

Transportation & Storage * Data for 1991-1994, 1996-1999 and 2001-2004 refers to transport, storage and communications.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Accommodation & Food Services

0
0
0
0
0.1
0
0.1
0.1

Information & Communications

0
0.2
0
0
0
0.1
0
0.1

Financial & Insurance Services * Data for 1991-1994 and 1996-1997 refers to financial, insurance, real estate and business services.

0
0
0
0
0
0.1
0.1
0

Real Estate Services

0
0
0
0
0.1
0
0
0.1

Professional Services

0
0
0
0.1
0
0
0.1
0

Administrative & Support Services

0
0
1.1
0.8
1.1
1.6
1.1
1.7

Public Administration & Education Services

67.8
69.1
67.9
69.1
65.9
66.1
61.7
57.7

Health & Social Services

0
0
0
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

Arts, Entertainment & Recreation

0.1
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0
0.3
0.1

Other Community, Social & Personal Services

0.1
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.1
0
0

Other Industries Nes * Data includes agriculture, fishing, quarrying, utilities, sewerage and waste management.

0.4
1.2
0.5
0.5
0.6
1.2
0.9
0.3
SOURCE : MINISTRY OF MANPOWER & SINGAPORE DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

Average Weekly Paid Hours Worked Per Employee

Sources of Data

Average Monthly Recruitment/Resignation Rate and Average Weekly Paid Hours Worked

Statistics on average monthly recruitment/resignation rate and average weekly paid hours worked are compiled from the Labour Market Survey. Prior to 2006, the survey covered private establishments with at least 25 employees. From 2006, the survey also includes the public sector comprising government ministries, organs of state and statutory boards.

Labour Relations

Statistics on Employers’ and Employees’ Trade Unions and Trade Disputes are compiled by MOM’s Labour Relations and Workplaces Division (LRWD). The LRWD monitors the industrial relations situation and provides mediation and conciliation services for the settlement of trade disputes. The Division also investigates complaints on infringements of the Employment Act which governs the terms and conditions of employment.

Statistics on Collective Agreements and Industrial Arbitration Court Awards are obtained from the Industrial Arbitration Court (IAC). The IAC was set up in 1960 under the Industrial Relations Act. Its functions include the registration and certification of collective agreements, hearing and determination of trade disputes and handing down of awards and interpretation and enforcement of terms of awards and collective agreements.

 

Definitions

Visit Glossary Page

Other References

Manpower
Singapore Yearbook of Manpower Statistics View
Labour Force in Singapore View
Census of Population 2020 View
Labour Cost
Quarterly Unit Labour Cost Index by Industry View

External Sources

Manpower
Ministry of Manpower View
Singapore Workforce Skills Qualifications
SkillsFuture Singapore View
Employment Assistance
Workforce Singapore View
Central Provident Fund matters
Central Provident Fund View